Hinduism and Human Rights in India

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Hinduism refers to an ethnic religion or Indian tradition that is majority in India and Nepal.

In this article, some basic topics about Hinduism will be introduced. You will have a general idea about what you need to know about human rights issues in India.

India’s population is one of the largest in the world and understanding the problem of human rights violations in Hinduism can lead to solutions to international human rights issues.



Hinduism is the third most common religion in the world, after Christianity and Islam.

As an amalgamation of ancient Indian Brahmanism and folk beliefs, it integrates Indian culture, customs, and social institutions.

For a specific summary of Hinduism, the following are included.

  • Beliefs of Hinduism
  • Origin of Hinduism/li>
  • Gods of Hinduism
  • Sects of Hinduism

Each of the above will be explained, based on their characteristics.

Hindu Beliefs

Hindu beliefs incorporate many religious thoughts, and they believe in the doctrines of reincarnation and karma.

It respects all living things, and it is characterized by the view of the cow as a sacred animal. Hindus do not eat beef or pork, and many Hindus are vegetarians.

Hinduism is also closely related to religions such as Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism.

Origin of Hinduism

Origin of Hinduism

Hinduism is believed to have originated between 2,300 B.C. and 1,500 B.C. in the Indus Valley, near modern Pakistan.

While other religions have founders, Hinduism is a blend of various religions and beliefs, and it is better to say that it is a religion that is constantly being updated.

The Indo-Aryans migrated to the Indus Valley around 1,500 BC, and it is said that Hinduism was fused with the language and culture of these indigenous people.
Likewise, the Hindu medieval period lasted from 500 to 1,500 A.D. Some temples were destroyed so that the Muslim rulers could avoid the Hindus from worshipping their gods.

Hindu gods

Hinduism is characterized by its belief in the involvement of divine powers in all things, and the decimation of many gods and goddesses.

The gods worshipped by Hindus include the following

  • Shiva: God of creation and destruction
  • Brahma: God that is responsible for the creation of the world and all living things
  • Vishnu: God who protects and preserves the universe
  • Devi: Goddess who fights to restore the Dharma
  • Krishna: God of love, of compassion and kindness
  • Lakshmi: Goddess of wealth and purity
  • Saraswathi: Goddess of learning

Basically, to warship in Hinduism, it is common to present flowers, oil, etc. to the gods and goddesses, which can be done at home.

Sects of Hinduism

Sects of Hinduism

There are many sects of Hinduism, but they are mainly divided into the following

  • Shakti Sect (followers of Devi)
  • Vishnu sect (followers of Vishnu)
  • Shiva sect (followers of Shiva)
  • Smarta (followers of Brahman and all the major gods)

It has congregations throughout Southeast Asia, with a distinctive focus on the Republic of India.

Certain Hindus believe in the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, and all the gods are considered as one.

Concepts of Hinduism

Concepts of Hinduism

Hinduism has a unique concept of belief in gods, reincarnation, and commentary.
In specific, there are three specific Hindu concepts, as follows

  • Reincarnation
  • Higher spiritual values
  • Freedom promotes growth

The circle of transmigration

Hinduism believes that all living things are reincarnated over and over. Lives are reborn either humans or animals and other living things.

Brahmanism believes that reincarnation is eternal, suffering is inevitable, the truth is not determined.

In Buddhism, which is opposite to the ideas of Hinduism, there are the following differences

Difference Hinduism Buddhism
Regions Mainly in Indian culture Faith is available to anyone in the world.
Worldview. The universe and life were created by Gods. Life is beginningless and endless
Discrimination Caste (Social division)) All men are equal.
The existence of gods polytheism The gods play a minor role.
The subject of the world is yourself.
Reincarnation Become immortal in the heavens. Get out of the reincarnation


Higher spiritual values

Higher spiritual values

To seek the higher spiritual values of Hinduism, it is considered necessary to organize all aspects of social life.

Since each human being has different values, it is important to understand that it is natural for everyone to have different values.

However, it is considered that freedom can be destroyed by elements of economic technocrats, political bureaucracy, and religious specificity.

Freedom encourages growth

New values and opinions are constantly being created in human`s lives, it is believed that by increasing the freedom of each individual, we can encourage human growth.

The specific definition of freedom is as follows.

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Reference : “Universal Declaration of Human Rights – United Nations”

Hinduism is considered as the oldest religion in the world, there have been many cases where differences with other religions have led to conflicts, which have resulted in violence.

Since there is a wide range of religions even within India, it is important to fully recognize freedom of expression as well as religion without any restrictions.

Human Rights Violations Under the Caste System

Human Rights Violations Under the Caste System

In India, the caste system is still deeply rooted, and this has led to a variety of human rights violations.

The caste system refers to the status system created by the Brahmanical religion and propagated by the Hindu religion.

The caste system can be divided into the following four categories.

  • Brahmin (priestly class)
  • Kshatriyas (Royalty and warrior class)
  • Vaisya (common people)
  • Shudras (slaves)

In addition to the above, there is also an outcaste (untouchable people), which is the lowest caste.

In addition, the caste system is divided by hundreds of statuses and occupations, and the sectarianism has persisted.

In order to solve the problem of human rights violation of the caste system, Buddha opened Buddhism based on the equality of human rights, but it was suppressed by Hinduism.

There is also a history of human rights violations that have been exacerbated by the ousting of Buddhism, which led to a more rigid caste system.

However, it cannot be said that Hinduism is the root of the problem of human rights violations in general, and many people still believe in it as a polytheistic religion.

Human Rights in India

Human Rights in India

Human rights in India are enshrined by India’s post-World War II constitution, which is also based on fundamental human rights.

Although India is one of the most populous countries in the world, it is estimated that about 30% of the population is below the global living standards due to poverty.

Aside from the caste system, the issue of human rights violations is also directed against religion and women, and India is considered to be a country that struggles with many human rights issues.

As an example, many people have been murdered for eating in front of upper caste people.
To address these issues of human rights violations in India in 2019, the following supports have been undertaken.

  • Chiral Community Development Program
  • Saida Pet Community Development Program/li>
  • Pudukkottai Community Development Program
  • Kandukur Community Development Program
  • Insurance Program Support Program through Capacity Building of Community Health Workers

It is said that various supports and improvement activities are necessary to reduce human rights violations in the future in India.

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